With good care, the vine will give a full harvest. After picking berries, the vine should be prepared for winter rest. This should be done in the fall. Grapes require special attention, especially during their development. Grape care consists of watering, fertilizing, pruning, and processing the fruit plant. Best way to clear brush and vines in this article.
Vine: pruning and fertilizing
For good vine development and fruit ripening, pruning should be carried out regularly. It is necessary to carefully examine the entire bush for the presence of sick and damaged areas. If there are any, they should be cut off. This procedure is desirable to perform in the fall when the leaves have already fallen. If you perform pruning before the specified period, then there will be an insufficient amount of nutrients for the plant to be able to overwinter well.
After removing diseased and dried branches, they must be collected and burned to prevent the spread of pest larvae. All shoots that have reached 8 inches should be cut off. If they are stretched to 12 inches, then cut off by 10%. All side shoots should also be pruned. They should have no more than two leaves.
After pruning, the cut places must be treated with a garden brew to prevent the rotting process. It is undesirable to cut the shoots in the spring since liquid can ooze at the site of the cuts. It will go away and with it the nutrients.
In case of emergency, pruning is carried out in early spring at a temperature of at least 5 degrees. When the berries begin to form and ripen, the bushes step up and pinch the old shoots. Also, you should not forget to clean the vine from excess leaves.
The vine becomes very weakened after harvesting, so it should be well fed with fertilizers. Fruiting depends on how the top dressing is made. It is best to fertilize with organic fertilizers – manure or compost. You do not need to dig up the soil, you can do with mulching. Wood ash can be added to organic matter. Feed the grapes should be every 3-4 years. In autumn, they are fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer. Potassium and superphosphate are taken in the same amount. If the soil is severely depleted, it is recommended to add the following components: boric acid (2.5 g), ammonium (5 g), zinc sulfate (2 g), manganese (2.5 g).
How to water a vine
Watering the vine is a very important event in the care of the vine, on which the quantity and quality of the crop depend. When the berries begin to ripen, the grape bush should be watered more than usual. However, it is necessary to be careful here, as excess and lack of moisture can affect the taste and appearance of the vine. In the summer, you need to water regularly.
The time of ripening of the grape variety will depend on the amount of watering. The late grape variety is watered at least 4 times. This is due to the long growing season. The average variety should be watered at least three times a season: after the leaves are blooming, the berries are tied and they begin to ripen.
Early grape varieties are recommended to be watered at least twice during the whole summer, namely: after the vine blooms and the berries appear.
Be sure to water the vine in the fall. Properly water the grapes as follows: around the vine should be dug small grooves. This is done so that the water does not spread and is kept in the pits. After that, the bush needs to be slightly loosened. In no case should you pour water under the root of the grapes? You can also make holes near each trunk. The top layer of earth is removed around to a depth of no more than 20 cm. Then pour according to the size of the excavated hole. After the water is absorbed, cover the top with the earth. This is done so that the earth does not dry out for a long time. It is not recommended for water during flowering and harvesting. The petals may fall off, and the berries may crack due to an overabundance of moisture.
Processing and shelter of grapes
Process the vine from possible pests should be after harvest, in the fall. This procedure is performed before covering the vine for the winter. The simplest and most affordable means for processing leaves is the soda-salt solution. In a 10-liter bucket of water, add 10 large spoons of salt and 5 spoons of soda. All well stir and process the bush with a spray gun. If mildew spots are observed on the leaves, then remove the diseased shoots and treat them with fungicidal preparations.
If powdery mildew is detected, it is necessary to use sulfur preparations. To release the vine from ticks are pinched together with the side-shoot removing. If some of the leaves on the bushes are half-twisted and have a painful appearance, then they need to be collected and burned. After that, treat with insecticides in combination with fungicides. Before covering the vineyard for the winter, it is necessary to treat the vine with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. As soon as the temperature drops below -5 degrees, you can start to cover the vine. There are various ways to hide the vine. The most suitable option for warming the bush is its shelter with pine or spruce branches.
In regions with severe winter, the vine is tilted and sprinkled with earth. You can cover the vineyard with various materials: paper, straw, an old blanket, slate, film. However, you should carefully consider the choice of covering material in the form of polyethylene. In winter, temperature changes are usually observed. As a result, moisture will collect inside, which can cause mold and various diseases. If the winter turned out to be warm, then fresh air should be allowed into the protective structure. Otherwise, the buds will start to bloom. Proper execution of the shelter will protect the vine from the winter cold. If you follow certain principles of care for the vine, you can achieve a high yield.