Among novice gardeners, there is an opinion that orchids are capricious and unpredictable flowers, care for them is extremely difficult, and reproduction at home is generally something impossible. But sooner or later you have to face this problem: the plant has grown too much and needs to be planted, children have appeared, you want to add to your own collection or make a beautiful gift. In fact, neither care nor reproduction of orchids is particularly difficult.
If you want to know how to propagate orchids, you need to study the characteristics of the new plant orchid, the conditions of its existence, the basic rules and methods of reproduction.
The basic rule of how to propagate orchids
The Orchids are native to the warm, humid tropics. In nature, it grows almost everywhere, clinging to the roots of trees and even rocks. At the same time, growing on trees, orchids do not parasitize the supporting plant orchid but extract nutrients literally from the air due to the abundant moisture, which itself contains the necessary components, washing them off the support.
That is why the roots of the plant have a special structure, most of them are located in the open air. They are covered with a special absorbent film, they are quite massive but very fragile.
The leaves also take an active part in ensuring the life of the orchid, so there are two types of watering the new plants – root and foliar. In the life cycle of a plant, there are different phases of active growth, flowering, and dormancy. They must be taken into account since they depend on the irrigation modes, room temperature, and top dressing.
To successfully breed an Orchid at home, you need to meet several conditions.
Time for orchids
During periods of flowering and rest, it is better not to disturb the plant flower at all. Reproduction should be made either in the spring or at the end of the abundant flowering phase when the orchid begins to grow actively.
Humidity of orchids
Full reproduction is possible when the humidity is more than 50%. At the same time, excessive moisture is also useless – the upper threshold should not exceed 80%.
Orchids are heat-loving new plants, so the ideal temperature for active cell division is not lower than +28 degrees.
Age of the plant of orchids
The Orchid must be an adult – at least 2 years old, strong, and healthy.
Important for the plant of orchids!
The diseased plant is unsuitable for reproduction. The condition of the roots and leaves must first be evaluated and if there are signs of diseases, first cure the flowering orchid.
The only exception is when the mother plant can no longer be saved.
One of the most successful and easy ways to propagate indoor plant phalaenopsis orchids, even for beginners, is in late winter or early spring when the plant is full of vital energy.
This can be done step by step as follows:
- scratch the peduncle with a sterile needle;
- the damaged area to lubricate the pasta, a layer of the drug should not exceed 2.5 in it’s best to do this with a toothpick; it is important to remember that if the paste is made low, this could result in no buds and another spike;
- if there is a “sleeping” kidney, then to Wake it up, you need to cut off the protective scales and apply the same amount of paste to the cut
- the Bud will Wake up in 20 days, you can plant the sprout after the appearance of 3 leaves and roots no shorter than 1 inch.
There are two types of plants orchids
Growing phalaenopsis orchids yourself is quite an exciting and rewarding activity. They take root well, grow quickly, and actively. There are several ways you can divide the bulbs, grow from a stalk or peduncle (they often say “grow from a leaf”, which is not quite true), propagate the flower with children.
Experienced growers sometimes grow seedlings themselves. This is a long-term method, and it is not very easy to implement it at home: to properly germinate seeds, you need to create special conditions and constantly maintain them.
The use of a particular method depends on the type and condition of the orchid plant.
There are two types of orchids.
- Monopodial species are orchids that do not form characteristic thickenings on the stems and roots – pseudobulbs. They have a single stem. They grow well and quickly. They are best propagated by children or cuttings.
- Sympodial orchids have several stems and form pseudobulbs. They grow more slowly. The most acceptable method of planting for them is dividing the Bush.
Vegetative reproduction orchids
This is one of the most common and simple methods of propagation of many domestic new plants. For sympodial orchids, it is the main one. This method is used for Mature new orchid plants that have formed a sufficient number of pseudobulbs, or the flower in the pot has become cramped.
Each thickening is already the germ of a full-fledged leaf process. You will need a sharp sterile knife or pruner, crushed activated or charcoal, fresh soil, and containers for planting sprouts.
The process of vegetative orchids reproduction is as follows:
1. to make it easier to release the flower from the ground, you must first water it very well, carefully remove it from the pot, clean the roots from the ground; many Orchid lovers advise soaking them in warm water for half an hour;
2. the roots are cut into several parts, each of which should remain at least 3 false bulbs and a sufficient number of roots, which is necessary for better rooting of new orchids;
3. to prevent the development of diseases and decay, all sections are sprinkled with coal powder;
4. then the seedlings must be dried for some time (2-3 hours) and placed in prepared containers with soil;
5. if the division of the shoot got a few roots, then to form a stronger root system, it can be Packed for a while in a bag with wet peat moss sphagnum-the roots will develop much more actively;
6. then the stronger plant orchid is planted in the ground;
7. in the first 3 days, root watering should not be performed, only spray the leaves twice a day, then you can water them according to the General rules.
This is a more complex method, which is only suitable for some varieties of plant orchids. You should follow the following sequence of actions:
1. to get cuttings, use long side shoots;
2. the selected part of the plant should be cut with a sharp sterile knife into several parts; the length of the segments should be 4-5 inches;
3. all sections, both on cuttings and on the parent plant, sprinkle with coal crumbs;
4. stand the process for 1.5-2 hours on a dry surface, and then lay it horizontally on a well-moistened ground;
5. cuttings should be placed in greenhouse conditions-cover with glass or film, maintain a constant temperature of at least +29 degrees, pour warm water every other day, preventing the appearance of excessive moisture; 1 time in 10 days, you can make top dressing;
6. roots will develop from the buds; as soon as they grow up to 2 inches, the plant can be planted.
Peduncle phalaenopsis orchid
This method is often the only way to save a diseased phalaenopsis orchid.
For reproduction, a faded peduncle is used, the Bud on which should completely wither.
The peduncle should be cut into parts that should have at least 1 kidney.
In fact, the same cuttings are obtained. Then you can act as when growing from cuttings, or you can apply a slightly different technology.
The prepared parts of the peduncle are placed in a bottle with clean, preferably soft water, to which a crushed tablet of activated carbon is added. You can add a slightly concentrated (1/4 of the recommended) solution of fertilizer for orchids. You need to change the liquid 1 time a week.
The water level is maintained about 2 inches above the cutoff. The room temperature should not exceed +28 degrees. At a higher temperature, the bud will develop a new peduncle, not a baby.
Cytokinin ointment, which should be applied to the kidney by cutting off a small scale with a sharp razor, will help to” Wake up ” the sleeping kidney.
Treatment with ointment should be carried out every 7-10 days for a month. The new baby is ready for transplantation when it has 3 leaves and fairly long (1-2 inches) roots.
Together with the part of the peduncle on which the process is located, the baby is placed in a transparent pot (the roots need light for development), filled with tree bark. Direct sunlight should not fall on the young plant orchid.
The plant orchid has buds located on the peduncle. From them, children can develop on the new plant itself – sprouts that are already ready for transplantation.
They may appear themselves, but if necessary, you can “Wake up” the kidney.
To stimulate the awakening and growth of the kidney, it is better to start in February, when the flower completely fades. It is necessary to reduce watering, stop feeding, avoid direct sunlight on the plant, and maintain the night temperature in the room no higher than +17 degrees, and the daytime temperature is about +27 degrees.
After about 1 month, the kidney will start to Wake up. At this point, you need to move the orchid to a warm place, restore the watering mode. You can fertilize by spraying the leaves with a nutrient solution.
Children form their own roots. But you should not immediately plant them – you need time to form a strong root system, ready for independent functioning. This process takes from 5 to 8 months. During this time, the process should appear 3-4 leaves and up to 5 own roots longer than 4 centimeters.
The ripened daughter shoot is cut with a sharp knife, the cut places are treated with crushed coal.
You can new plant the shoot in 3 hours in a slightly moistened substrate. In order for the roots to take root well and begin to develop actively, the sprout is covered with a plastic or glass cup for a while, creating greenhouse conditions.
Moisten the soil 1 time in 2-3 days, the glass should be raised periodically for ventilation. The flower orchid should be carefully observed. If it does not dry, turns green, and begins to grow – the “roof” can be removed.
This is the longest way. To get a blooming adult orchid, you will need at least 4 years.
In addition, there may not be a complete resemblance to the mother plant. Compared to the others, this method is more time-consuming and not always successful. For a long time, it was considered impossible to implement it at home.
But experienced growers can also experiment.
The seed of an orchid is no larger than a speck of dust, and it is very difficult to see it without special devices. In addition, the seeds do not have a protective nutrient layer-the endosperm, they are susceptible to diseases and require careful and accurate care. Seeds are scattered in a thin layer on wet ground, without covering the top with soil.
Next, you need to create a greenhouse effect by covering the container with a film or glass. You don’t need to water the orchid seeds – just spray them with warm purified water. The process of seed germination requires strict control, you can not allow drying or rotting, the appearance of mold.
A more effective method involves placing seeds in sterile test tubes or small jars that can be hermetically sealed.
The nutrient mixture for orchid seeds is prepared according to special recipes, you will need quite a lot of components.
Thorough disinfection of the exposed and seeds, and concentrate, and capacity for germination.
The process technology is as follows:
1. for disinfection, the seeds should be covered with a weak solution (1%) of bleach for 15-20 minutes; shake hard several times;
2. use a syringe to transfer them to the nutrient mixture, in each container it should be about 40 ml; close the jars carefully and move them to the greenhouse; after six months, the seeds should germinate;
3. next, the mixture should be poured into a container with warm water (50 ml), add 1-2 drops of a one-percent solution of “Fundazol” to protect against fungal diseases, and leave for processing for 20-25 minutes;
4. for planting, it is necessary to prepare a special soil from peat moss and bark with the addition of crushed activated carbon;
5. after six months, the sprouts can be transplanted into the ground for adult orchids.
Sprouts must be dived: the first time after the first leaf appears, the second time after the second leaf, the third time after the fourth. Unfortunately, it may take several years (up to 7) for a phalaenopsis orchid grown in this way to bloom.
Culture medium for sowing orchid seeds
Orchid seeds are planted in a special nutrient mixture.
There are several ways to prepare it.
* Fill agar-agar powder (15-20 grams) with water and allow to swell. Boil a glass of water, mix with a jelly-like mass and add 10 grams of glucose and fructose, a little orthophosphoric acid, and calcium carbonate. Mix everything well until completely dissolved.
* Mix 100 ml of tomato juice, 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of banana pulp, 2 tablets of crushed activated carbon, 2-3 drops of orchid fertilizer, 1/3 teaspoon of honey. Dilute the resulting mixture with distilled water (about 400 ml).
The nutrient solution must be sterilized, poured into a sterile container, warmed again in a water bath, and left for a week to make sure that it is completely decontaminated.
When mold appears, the mixture is destroyed and cannot be used.
The young plant orchid must be constantly monitored and carefully cared for. It will be fully formed by 3-4 years.
Florists, taking into account the natural conditions of life of orchids, advise planting them in transparent pots, since the roots take part in photosynthesis and need lighting. In addition, it is easier to control the condition of the roots, since they should not be allowed to rot. Rot is the main enemy of the orchid, you can not fill the plant in any case, it can die.
Foliar irrigation is carried out by copious spraying of the plant, creating a kind of wet ” fog ” around it. Experts suggest that root watering should be carried out by immersion: a sufficient number of holes are made in the bottom of the container where the orchid lives, and the pot is placed in a wide bowl with water.
At the same time, the roots have the opportunity to pick up the necessary amount of liquid themselves.
The frequency of watering is the same as for adult plants, and also depends on the time of year and the phase of the life of the orchid.
The roots are very tender, can come to the surface. In this case, they need to be sprayed together with the leaves, it is permissible to cover them with pieces of moss. If there are brownish spots on the roots, it’s time to start treating the Orchid, otherwise, black “blots” will form on the leaves, the smell of rot will appear, and mold may even start.
This is already a neglected state, it is unlikely to save the flowering orchid.
For phalaenopsis orchids, the composition of the soil is very important. It is fundamentally different from conventional soil mixtures, prepared on the basis of pine bark, sawdust, charcoal, and sphagnum moss. The self-prepared substrate must be disinfected by treating with hot steam, a weak solution of potassium permanganate, or any fungicide. But experts advise you to buy a special ready-made substrate.
The pot is selected in a suitable size that does not restrict the development of roots but also does not overly spacious. There should be a lot of drainage holes, and moisture stagnation should not be allowed. 1/3 of the pot should be filled with drainage-expanded clay, brick crumbs, or foam. Foam is also an excellent heat insulator.
This quality is especially important if the window sill becomes cold during the cold season.
Orchids should be fed with fertilizers intended for them.
They differ from other complex feedings in their composition and lower concentration. They can only be used in liquid form. Orchids need proper care more than other domestic new plants. Watching a developing flower orchid is a very exciting process.
If you follow all the rules, good lighting, and the right temperature, the young phalaenopsis orchid will bloom in due time and please the owner.